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Cylinder - Cylinder assembly consists of a cylinder, piston, ram, packing, and seals. Piston diameter and oil pressure determine the force (tonnage) that a given press can deliver.

Closed Circuit - A conduit arrangement in which the pump delivery, after passing through the hydraulic actuator, by-passes the reservoir and returns directly to the pump inlet. Closed circuit configuration is commonly used in hydrostatic transmission drive systems. The movement of the actuator in this type circuit is controlled by a variable displacement pump and not a valve.

Closed Loop - A group of control elements linked together such that the output is continually monitored and compared with the input. Should the output differ from the input, the resulting error signal will cause corrective action in the system.

C-Frame Hydraulic Press - A C-Frame hydraulic press, also known as a c-style hydraulic press, or a gap frame hydraulic press has a frame configuration that resembles a “C." The C-frame hydraulic press is designed to have a minimal footprint on the shop floor. Other advantages of C-frame hydraulic press construction include an increased open work area, which increases accessibility. C-frame hydraulic presses are used to form a wide range of materials, including rubber, plastics, and composites.

Capillary - A tube which exhibits a length to diameter ratio ³ 400. In most cases the tube has an internal diameter in the range of a few thousandths of an inch, which causes the characteristic elevation or depression of liquids.

Cartridge Valve - A valve which can be removed and replaced easily without being fully dismantled. They are completely bodiless and capable of satisfying directional, flow, and pressure functions.

Cartridge - A component which can be removed and replaced easily without being fully dismantled — e.g., a replaceable element for a filter, pump or valve.

Cavitation - A localized vaporous/gaseous condition within a liquid stream which occurs where the pressure is reduced below atmospheric and the vapor pressure of the liquid. In pumps it occurs when the suction line is restricted and the resulting vacuum causes the fluid to boil and the surface of the fluid wet component to flake and pit.

Contamination Control - An engineering technology involved in planning, organizing, and implementing all the activities needed to identify (recognize and describe) contaminant, analyze (characterize and quantify) contaminant, exclude (restrict, isolate, and reject) contaminant, reduce (capture, retain, and remove) contaminant, establish the tolerance of components for contaminant, and ascertain the necessary contaminant balance (between the level of contamination in the fluid and the level of contaminant tolerance of the components to yield a given contaminant service life).


Dual Palm Button Controls - A common method of actuating hydraulic presses. Both buttons must be depressed at the same time to bring the ram down requiring the operator to use both hands. Control circuits include non-repeat and anti-tie down features.

Distance Reversal Switch - An adjustable limit switch to set depth of stroke at which ram reverses.

Dwell Timer - An adjustable timer to set the length of dwell at the bottom of the stroke. The timer may be used for other functions such as timing a sequence of press movement.

Dwell - Hydraulic Presses are cable of maintaining force on the work for extended periods of time. This is typically accomplished by using Pressure lock value or variable volume pumps that are remotely controlled for precise & long period of Pressure holding

Daylight - The distance between the bed bolster and the ram bolster when the ram is fully retracted. This is also commonly known as the Open Height.

Damping Length - The horizontal distance between the centers of the incoming and outgoing flows in a spool valve. It is used in the transient flow force analysis. Take positive sign if the fluid flows outward at the metering orifice and negative sign otherwise.

Derivative, Partial - A derivative taken with respect to a single independent variable while all remaining independent variables are treated as constants.

Distributed Parameter Model - A mathematical model having an infinite degree of freedom in which the variables can act over the entire length of the system elements. The converse is a lumped model.

Dither - A relatively high frequency, low amplitude periodic signal or oscillatory motion sometimes superimposed on the servovalve input to improve system resolution. The dither (either mechanically or hydraulically) is applied to offset friction (static friction or silt lock), promote rapid and accurate response, and/or improve system resolution.

Double-acting - Describes a component such as a cylinder which operates in two directions or where an actuating force can be applied in either direction.

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