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K, L
Glossary
I
Inertance, Hydraulic  A quantity
related to the inertial forces required to accelerate or deceleration a
fluid in a conduit or a passage. It is analogous to electrical inductance.
Inertial Load  The reaction force resulting from the acceleration
of a mass and is equal to the product of the mass and the acceleration, and
always acts in a direction opposite to that of the actuator motion.
Inertial Load  The reaction force resulting from the acceleration
of a mass and is equal to the product of the mass and the acceleration, and
always acts in a direction opposite to that of the actuator motion.
J
Jack  A singleacting cylinder
that can be pressure actuated in only one direction.
K
Kinetic Energy  The energy that
a substance or body possesses by virtue of its mass (weight) and velocity.
Knockout  A device to strip the part from the punch or die.
L
Lappingin  Polishing a surface
such as a valve seat to obtain a smooth mating surface.
Lap  The relative axial position relationship between the fixed and
movable flow metering edges with the spool at null. Lap is measured as the
total separation at zero flow of straight line extensions of the nearly
straight portions of the normal flow curve, drawn separately for each
polarity, expressed as per cent of rated input parameter.
Leakage, Center Position  This refers to the amount of leakage
associated with spool lap conditions for a given clearance.
Learning Control System  A system designed to recognize familiar
features and patterns of a situation and then, based on its past experience
or learned behavior, react in an optimum manner.
Linear Actuator  A device which converts pressure energy into
linear motion with a limited stroke; i.e., a hydraulic cylinder or ram.
Linear Equation (Function)  An equation of the first degree (which
always maps as a straight line).
Linearity  A measure of deviation from proportional relationship in
the ratio of valve output to input. The degree to which the normal flow
curve conforms to the normal flow gain line with other operational variables
held constant. When output varies in direct proportion to the input, the
valve is considered linear.
Load Sensing System  A closedcircuit system with load/pressure
feedback. It combines the advantages of an opencenter system and constant
pressure closedcenter systems while avoiding their major disadvantages.
Lumped Parameter Model  A mathematical model which treats all
variables of a system element (lumped) as if they acted at only one point in
the element. The converse is a distributed system.